Periodontal Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

April 10, 2023by DMC Tour0

Periodontal disease: causes, symptoms, and treatment

According to statistics, about 95% of residents suffer from periodontal disease. The reasons are low levels of home hygiene, unwillingness to resort to professional medical care in the early stages of gum disease, and timely preventive examinations.

Self-treatment is especially popular: without a doctor’s prescription, herbal rinses are actively used, special kinds of toothpaste are bought, and ointments and antiseptics are rubbed in. As a consequence, there are such high rates of morbidity. However, of all gum disease, 3% is caused by insidious periodontal disease. What is periodontal disease dangerous, what causes it, and whether it can be cured – we answer the most worrying questions.

Periodontal disease – what is it

Periodontal disease is a systemic disease of the periodontal tissues, caused by an imbalance of metabolism and blood supply to the gums. To date, periodontal disease is incurable and characterized by an unfavorable prognosis for the patient, namely the complete loss of teeth. The disease doesn’t occur overnight – it develops asymptomatically over several years. The appearance of the first symptoms indicates the aggravation and progressive development of the pathological condition.

Scientists have established: if there are obvious symptoms of periodontal disease, it means that the disease has been going on for at least 15 years.

Periodontal disease or periodontitis?

Many patients confuse the two diseases. And this is not surprising: previously, all gum disease was called periodontal disease, so this word still prevails in the popular lexicon. Now, this term is obsolete, and in medicine “periodontitis” is used instead. However, the disease “periodontal disease” is real, although it is quite rare, which cannot be said about periodontitis.

Periodontitis and periodontal disease are two completely different diseases that differ from each other in their symptoms and course. While in the case of periodontitis, the main symptoms are inflammation of the periodontal tissues, bleeding gums, and loose teeth, in the case of periodontitis – the destruction of the tooth-supporting apparatus without any signs of inflammation, pain, or bleeding. Only a doctor can make an accurate diagnosis.

Causes of periodontal disease

The causes of the disease are not fully understood, but its development is often influenced by systematic diseases of a general nature, such as:

  • genetic predisposition
  • malocclusion
  • endocrine disorders
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • gastrointestinal diseases
  • arterial hypertension
  • vitamin deficiency

Smokers, pregnant women, and people who neglect regular oral hygiene and their health, in general, are particularly at risk. The saddest part is that periodontal disease develops at any age, including children.

Symptoms of periodontal disease

The symptomatology depends on the severity of the disease. But even here, it is not so simple. It is impossible to detect periodontal disease yourself at the initial stage: the disease is almost asymptomatic and painless up to the severe stage.

The following signs should alert you and make you see a dentist immediately:

  • pale and thickened gums
  • Gum discomfort and itching
  • Non-carious lesions and discoloration of enamel
  • Elongation and thinning of teeth
  • Exposed tooth root

Patients usually first go to the doctor with a complaint of hypersensitivity of the teeth, and after an x-ray examination, an accurate diagnosis is made.

Stages of periodontal disease

Despite the lack of a unified physician’s view on the origin of the main types of this disease, there are currently about a hundred different classifications of periodontal disease. We will cite the most common one – according to the severity of the disease.

There are three main stages of periodontal disease

Mild stage

The patient begins to worry about slight tooth sensitivity during temperature changes. The initial signs of bone atrophy are visible only on X-rays.

The average degree

The gum settles, the roots of the teeth become exposed, and the gap between the teeth becomes noticeable. There may be wedge-shaped defects. The doctor uses the images to determine that the bone tissue is destroyed by more than one-third of the root length.

Severe degree

The roots of the teeth are exposed to more than half of their length. The teeth are very sensitive. The bite is distorted. Significant tooth mobility is noted, and then tooth loss.


You may ask, “How can periodontal disease be treated if it is an incurable disease?” That’s right: this disease cannot be cured, but it is possible to achieve a remission stage. If we talk about the treatment of periodontal disease at home, it is contraindicated – no folk remedies will help here. Only a periodontist with the help of modern therapeutic methods can slow the process of atrophy of bone tissue and stop the development of complications. Patience will be required of the patient (treatment will be long) and compliance with all medical recommendations.

Treatment of periodontal disease is carried out comprehensively and is aimed at relieving the main symptoms, improving blood supply to the gums, and restoring the aesthetics and functionality of the teeth.


Treatment is to perform professional hygiene and sanitation of the oral cavity. The presence of cavities and tartar only worsens the situation.

Physiotherapeutic treatment massage, electrophoresis, ultrasound therapy, baths, and rinses improve the condition of the gums and reduce the sensitivity of the mucosa.

Drug treatment anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immunostimulatory, hormonal medications, and multivitamins are prescribed.

Injection therapy plasma therapy improves blood circulation and slows down atrophy.

Teeth splinting tooth splinting is indicated in the case of pathological mobility of the teeth, in order to strengthen them. The type of splinting structure is chosen individually.

Surgical treatment is performed in severe bone atrophy in order to restore bone and prevent premature tooth loss.

In addition to dentists, the patient must undergo a comprehensive diagnosis by other subspecialists to identify and eliminate the underlying cause of periodontal disease.


The main complication of periodontal disease is the premature loss of bone and teeth, as well as the negative consequences associated with it. The absence of teeth leads to a significant reduction in the quality of life and various psychological problems for the patient.

In addition, scientists have proven that people with the periodontal disease die earlier and are susceptible to the development of cancer. Therefore, this diagnosis, although rare, requires urgent comprehensive treatment by qualified specialists.

Still, have questions? Ask us.

The only way to prevent periodontal disease is to visit your dentist regularly. DMC Tour Clinic has everything you need to take timely action to restore periodontal tissues, provide comprehensive treatment and prevent early tooth loss. In addition, do not forget about the rules of oral hygiene, proper nutrition, a healthy lifestyle, and timely treatment of systemic diseases.


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Copyright 2022 by DMC Tour Dental. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2022 by DMC Tour Dental. All rights reserved.