April 10, 2023by DMC Tour0


The condition of teeth depends not only on dental care but also on what you eat and drink. A lack of vitamins and minerals can lead to many diseases. But so can too much of them. For example, too much fluoride in the body can lead to dental fluorosis, which causes damage to the enamel and, over time, to the bone.

What is fluorosis

White or brown stains appear on the outside of the teeth because of an increased concentration of fluoride in the body. Usually, the first person to diagnose fluorosis in children is the paediatrician, not the dentist.

Causes of Fluorosis

  • Drinking water with too much fluoride.
  • Consumption of certain medications. Occurrence of the disease as a side effect of medication.
  • Toothpaste is not suitable for their age. Children should not brush milk teeth with toothpaste containing fluoride, which is intended for adults.

The causes of dental fluorosis are believed to be well understood now. They were first talked about in the early twentieth century by Italian doctors. They suggested that the appearance of white spots on the teeth may have been caused by volcanic dust. The symptoms of fluorosis were first officially documented in 1931 by American scientists Smith and Churchill. They also described the mechanism of exposure of the body to a large dose of fluoride, leading to fluorosis of the teeth and bones.

Symptoms of fluorosis

The first sign is a whitish, streaky pattern on tooth enamel in children and adults. In the milder forms, there may be single chalky spots or dots. This is a signal to see a specialist. The earlier the treatment of fluorosis begins, the less damage will be done to the body.

The forms of fluorosis

  • Staining. A chalky, streaky pattern appears on the teeth, especially on the upper incisors and canines.
  • Spotted. The appearance of multiple white spots or one large chalky spot.
  • Chalky mottling. Small spots appear on all teeth in which the enamel becomes matt and brittle.
  • Erosive. Severe pigmentation of the enamel and chipping causes pain when eating.
  • Destructive. The protective layer is almost destroyed, which can cause tooth loss already in childhood.

Fluorosis in children

Due to developmental physiology, children are at risk. 

Enrichment of the immature body with fluoride leads to a loss of calcium in the enamel of the teeth, which causes the development of fluorosis, from which the teeth become weak and brittle


A differentiated diagnosis is necessary in the case of dental fluorosis because the disease At a certain stage, there are similar symptoms to others. For example, with caries in its initial form. However, in this case, the stains are small and stained. This is not the case with fluorosis – the spots are discoloured and random.

In adults, the fluoride content of drinking water is

In an adult the normal concentration of fluoride in drinking water is max. 6mg per litre, in a child it is less than 1mg. Exceeding these values leads to the development of pathologies not only of the enamel but also of the bones.

Treatment of fluorosis

  • Remineralisation. Special formulas are applied to the enamel to normalize the level of vitamins and minerals in the dental tissues.
  • Bleaching. This method of restoring enamel is only effective in the initial stages of the disease – with streaky and stained form.
  • Restoration. The doctor restores the shape of the tooth with composite materials, veneers or lumineers. Or a crown is put on the tooth.

The specialist chooses the method of treatment depending on the shape of the disease and the degree of tooth decay.

Preventing fluorosis

In areas where water is oversaturated with fluoride, experts recommend drinking quality water passed through special filters, drinking milk and eating fresh fruit and vegetables every day. Kinds of toothpaste with excessive fluoride content should be avoided.

Still, have questions? Ask us.

Fluorosis can be avoided if you follow the advice of experts. Make it a habit to visit your dentist every six months for preventive check-ups.

This will keep your teeth healthy.


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Copyright 2022 by DMC Tour Dental. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2022 by DMC Tour Dental. All rights reserved.